Search found 593 matches

by jim.bus
2021-01-16 06:01
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Hmail not delivering emails anymore
Replies: 15
Views: 155

Re: Hmail not delivering emails anymore

Ulimetic wrote:
2021-01-16 04:55
Jim.bus, thanks again, I create a cert with letsencrypt and activated SSL in TCP/IP!
Everything seems to work just fine!!!
Thanks again
You also need to add the Certificates in Settings>Advanced>SSL Certificates. Otherwise there will be no Encryption.

I
by jim.bus
2021-01-16 03:13
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Hmail not delivering emails anymore
Replies: 15
Views: 155

Re: Hmail not delivering emails anymore

Yes, so many people only display a subset of all the Logs and for me only a portion of the Logs is no good. I need all the Logs to have a chance of determining what the problem is. So you aren't the only one to not show all the Logs. I just think it is good practice to always show all the Logs and t...
by jim.bus
2021-01-16 03:09
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Hmail not delivering emails anymore
Replies: 15
Views: 155

Re: Hmail not delivering emails anymore

One other thing. You've specified security levels such as TLS Versions but yet you do not have any Security Certificates set up for hMailServer. So, even if you do specify to use TLS 1.0 through TLS 1.3, there will be no Security Certificates to use with TLS so no encryption will occur. This should ...
by jim.bus
2021-01-16 02:37
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Hmail not delivering emails anymore
Replies: 15
Views: 155

Re: Hmail not delivering emails anymore

While we wait for jimimaseye to reply, you should check to use TLSv1.3. Currently you are not using TLSv1.3. TLSv1.3 is one of the main reasons to be using version 5.6.8-B2534. When version 5.6.8 was created for some reason TLSv1.3 wasn't defaulted on and in my opinion should be defaulted on. It is ...
by jim.bus
2021-01-11 00:31
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Migrate to new Internet provider. TIPS?
Replies: 6
Views: 187

Re: Migrate to new Internet provider. TIPS?

Primary MX on 4G, Internet surf/streaming and secondary MX on fiber - Yes there are issues with multiple default gateways on Windows so I have two hMailServers - a mailserver and a backup-mx/test server. However that also mean I can send out on either ISP :mrgreen: I am curious as to how you keep y...
by jim.bus
2021-01-10 22:32
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Migrate to new Internet provider. TIPS?
Replies: 6
Views: 187

Re: Migrate to new Internet provider. TIPS?

Around a year ago or so, I went from a Dynamic IP Address with my ISP to a Static IP Address with the same ISP provider. I do not believe the ISP provider is a concern. For me, all I had to do was make the appropriate DNS changes such as set up an A-Record for my Static IP Address, Change the MX Rec...
by jim.bus
2021-01-09 00:02
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Cannot connect to Imap
Replies: 7
Views: 182

Re: Cannot connect to Imap

You haven't shown your Log Entries (all logs selected as well) for your Thunderbird connection and for your notebook connection. But if Thunderbird and notebook works with the IMAP connection then that might suggest that there is something wrong with your iPhone email client configuration and not wi...
by jim.bus
2021-01-07 01:15
Forum: Off-topic discussions
Topic: Corona Virus
Replies: 254
Views: 76725

Re: Corona Virus

Watching the U.S implode: makes you proud, doesn't it. Proud to not be American. And I say that as a European but so will Chinese, Russians, Turks and many other less tolerant countries. Perhaps one or more of these countries that you mention are pushing the social media buttons of the general popu...
by jim.bus
2021-01-07 00:57
Forum: Off-topic discussions
Topic: Corona Virus
Replies: 254
Views: 76725

Re: Corona Virus

Watching the U.S implode: makes you proud, doesn't it. Proud to not be American. And I say that as a European but so will Chinese, Russians, Turks and many other less tolerant countries. Well done Trump. Ironically you've succeeded in doing the very counter opposite to what you claimed you wanted t...
by jim.bus
2021-01-06 10:44
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Slow connection
Replies: 14
Views: 763

Re: Slow connection

Ok, now I'm performing backup of the current version, but I have many mail GBs. I read something about "external tools". What are they? I have never used the external tools myself and even though I have more than 50 accounts (mostly Forwarding EMail Addresses), I still use the built in Backup. With...
by jim.bus
2021-01-06 01:19
Forum: Off-topic discussions
Topic: Corona Virus
Replies: 254
Views: 76725

Re: Corona Virus

You got that right. And the Stupid Democrats in Congress will probably want to run out the clock to 1-20-21 giving this 'CRIMINAL' more opportunity to do damage to the Nation. I have badgered my Representative to support an immediate Impeachment now even if it won't result in Removal from Office bu...
by jim.bus
2021-01-06 01:16
Forum: Off-topic discussions
Topic: Corona Virus
Replies: 254
Views: 76725

Re: Corona Virus

So what... Republicans lost! No. Republicans won across the board because they rode the coattails of a very popular president who garnered more votes than any other candidate in history. Over 5 million more than Obama in 2008. Trump won in an epic landslide. All that's left to do is effectuate that...
by jim.bus
2021-01-05 23:02
Forum: Off-topic discussions
Topic: Corona Virus
Replies: 254
Views: 76725

Re: Corona Virus

When the Democrats drew the District boundaries the Districts tended to include Liberals and minorities with Conservatives which did tend to be Democratic leaning Districts. I did leave out the next sentence which would have been that the Districts drawn by Republicans tended to be all Conservative...
by jim.bus
2021-01-05 13:41
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Slow connection
Replies: 14
Views: 763

Re: Slow connection

You can try to look in the hMailAdmin under Performance for some options to control how hMailServer processes email but depending on how much traffic you are processing I wouldn't touch them until you knew the cause of your presumed slow down. I've never had to do this before for any slow down myse...
by jim.bus
2021-01-04 20:06
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Slow connection
Replies: 14
Views: 763

Re: Slow connection

You don't give any clue as to what may be causing your presumed slow down. You probably should first try to determine what the cause of your presumed slow down is. It's possible you may be experiencing a bot incessantly connecting to your email server for instance. You don't indicate how much email ...
by jim.bus
2021-01-04 00:16
Forum: General discussions
Topic: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!
Replies: 26
Views: 1560

Re: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!

mattg, I use Let's Encrypt Certificates but only use the 'cert.pem' and 'privkey.pem' files in hMailServer. I do not use the 'chain.pem' file because for some reason the expiration date in the 'chain.pem' file is always expired. However, while I don't have any Thunderbird Clients, I do use an Outlo...
by jim.bus
2021-01-03 23:53
Forum: General discussions
Topic: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!
Replies: 26
Views: 1560

Re: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!

I normally use the "fullchain.cer" but hMailServer debug logging revealed the certificate CA could not be verified so I switched to the single certificate. I need to use the 'full chain' for email clients like thunderbird and outlook to like the certificates. In your case I would get ONE certificat...
by jim.bus
2021-01-03 21:23
Forum: General discussions
Topic: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!
Replies: 26
Views: 1560

Re: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!

I am using version 5.6.8-B2501 and I believe I get the same type of EHLO followed by a HELO from, in this case, a site trying to SPAM me. I see something like this all the time. Not sure but I may have seen this also on 5.6.7-B2425. See my Log Entries: "TCPIP" 12384 "2021-01-03 05:58:07.989" "TCP - ...
by jim.bus
2021-01-03 07:29
Forum: General discussions
Topic: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!
Replies: 26
Views: 1560

Re: hMailServer Backup-MX acting weird!

It is "PrimaryServer" that is out of order... "BackupServer" is not doing anything out of order. On "BackupServer" Route is defined as "acme.inc", Port 25, STARTTLS optional and both sender/recipient match as "local address" 1: Everything is run on Port 25 with StartTLS optional. 2: hMailserver.ini...
by jim.bus
2021-01-01 23:37
Forum: General discussions
Topic: HELP!! Hmailserver & Hostgator
Replies: 12
Views: 804

Re: HELP!! Hmailserver & Hostgator

I'm not the expert at this type of question but I would think this would not be a function of hMailSever. My concept of how an Email Server should function would be to send email without slowing it down otherwise you would bog down users especially if you had many users email accounts you were hosti...
by jim.bus
2020-12-28 22:13
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Can send emails but not receive
Replies: 7
Views: 600

Re: Can send emails but not receive

Your solution may not be a desirable solution. Your solution gives up capability to encrypt/secure your transmissions. At best it would be a temporary work around and not a permanent solution unless perhaps your provider somehow doesn't support encrypting but I would believe that would be up to the ...
by jim.bus
2020-12-28 06:30
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Can send emails but not receive
Replies: 7
Views: 600

Re: Can send emails but not receive

ISPs will block Port 25 many times but that would normally be for outgoing email not incoming email. You state you send email but not receive email so while that error may be a problem and if I am interpreting the meaning correctly that doesn't match the problem you are having. From what I saw in yo...
by jim.bus
2020-12-28 02:25
Forum: General discussions
Topic: relayer
Replies: 18
Views: 1261

Re: relayer

I still don't know if the Comcast Server is authorized to send with the Domain specified on hMailserver if that is the problem. Comcast may not even checking that. You'd have to ask Comcast about that. However, you are using an old version of hMailServer. You probably should upgrade to the latest Pr...
by jim.bus
2020-12-28 00:24
Forum: General discussions
Topic: relayer
Replies: 18
Views: 1261

Re: relayer

Yes, I authenticate for the relay as I do when sending direct out of thunderbird client which works ok. It seems that the most common error is comcast justs terminates the connection without any other info. Tomorrow I will call comcast and see what they say. Sometimes their techs are stupid, someti...
by jim.bus
2020-12-28 00:14
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Can send emails but not receive
Replies: 7
Views: 600

Re: Can send emails but not receive

You need to provide more information such as Log Entries and any error messages from the client trying to send through its email server. You also haven't indicated what your DNS MX Records are to verify if they are set correctly. They should be pointing to the A-Record which is the IP Address of you...
by jim.bus
2020-12-28 00:05
Forum: General discussions
Topic: relayer
Replies: 18
Views: 1261

Re: relayer

I am trying to use Comcast as a relay for smtp outgoing emails from hmail. When I test it using the hmail diagnostic, I get all greens. But I can't seem to send out an email to anyone else. Emails are returned if I try to send them to my comcst or gmail accounts. If I use a client that is configure...
by jim.bus
2020-12-27 23:56
Forum: General discussions
Topic: problem with ssl
Replies: 32
Views: 2121

Re: problem with ssl

In addition to enabling the StartTls if available, the Email Server hMailServer connects to must be Enabled for Encryption. Enabling the setting in hMailSever will only provide Encryption if the other Email Server also offers Encryption capability and if both Email Servers can agree on available Enc...
by jim.bus
2020-12-25 13:45
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Looking for a new Email client.
Replies: 4
Views: 526

Re: Looking for a new Email client.

Yes hMailServer is an Email Server and not a Client and pretty much probably most email Clients are able to connect to it. I've been using hMailServer for years for my personal use and it is one of my most reliable applications. However, as said, this is not an Email Client. You don't compose emails...
by jim.bus
2020-12-24 03:31
Forum: General discussions
Topic: I am thinking that this should not be allowed
Replies: 22
Views: 1785

Re: I am thinking that this should not be allowed

SorenR wrote:
2020-12-24 03:22
Not sure Routers can do Layer 7 DDOS protection... Most common are Layer 3 and Layer 4 like TCP-SYN floods, UDP
floods, and ICMP attacks.

To your point, my ASUS Router (RT-AC5300) specifies it protects for DoS not DDoS attacks.
by jim.bus
2020-12-24 02:06
Forum: General discussions
Topic: I am thinking that this should not be allowed
Replies: 22
Views: 1785

Re: I am thinking that this should not be allowed

I don't know if this would work in this situation but my ASUS Router Firewall has a Denial Of Service (DOS) function built into the Router Firmware. If it would work then perhaps he should confirm if his Router has a similar DOS Function.
by jim.bus
2020-12-23 09:39
Forum: General discussions
Topic: SMTP Port Timed out in peak hours
Replies: 2
Views: 331

Re: SMTP Port Timed out in peak hours

He hasn't shown any hMailServer Logs yet and we don't know what Database Server he is using. Does he have enough connections specified to his Database Server to handle the volume of email? Could he be using the internal built in Database Server and is it adequate to handle this much volume. I'm no e...
by jim.bus
2020-12-23 06:17
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Yet Another Smtp Limit
Replies: 9
Views: 690

Re: Yet Another Smtp Limit

Perhaps a simpler way would be to do your Administration with hMailAdmin. From your statement nothing prevents the User from changing their Passwords back to simple (weak) Passwords, I'm assuming you are doing your hMailServer Administration with the Browser based Admin utility which allows the user...
by jim.bus
2020-12-23 02:38
Forum: General discussions
Topic: NOOB wants only a maildrop
Replies: 3
Views: 402

Re: NOOB wants only a maildrop

Depending on how you want to get mail from External Accounts, etc. Why don't you use something like a normal Email Client. I am only familiar with Outlook and Thunderbird but Outlook for sure would be able to Download on an Email Account by Email Account basis both POP3 and IMAP into either individu...
by jim.bus
2020-12-21 14:06
Forum: General discussions
Topic: problem with ssl
Replies: 32
Views: 2121

Re: problem with ssl

My version was 5.4 I updated it to the latest version. Now it seems the problem disappeared. Thank you very much for your time and your help. I have a question about port configuration: Which option is better for each port (25, 465, 587, 110, 143), to not being considered as spam and having high re...
by jim.bus
2020-12-21 12:46
Forum: General discussions
Topic: problem with ssl
Replies: 32
Views: 2121

Re: problem with ssl

What version of hMailServer are you working on? What Client are you using and what version (date released - I want to know how old the Client is) and what did you specify for the Outgoing Server Port Number and Encryption versions? I also want to see the hMailAdmin TCP/IP set up for Ports 465 and 58...
by jim.bus
2020-12-21 08:19
Forum: General discussions
Topic: problem with ssl
Replies: 32
Views: 2121

Re: problem with ssl

Still you aren't showing all your log entries. You should show everything. For instance your missing the HELO or EHLO entries and any other associated Entries. But it looks like something is not being entirely read and probably your Certificate entries since it is the SSL Handshake entry which is sh...
by jim.bus
2020-12-20 22:35
Forum: General discussions
Topic: problem with ssl
Replies: 32
Views: 2121

Re: problem with ssl

This is the start of my privkey.pem file for the Private Key Certificate File: -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----- This is the end of my privkey.pem file for the Private key Certificate File: -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY----- You must make sure all the dashes displayed are present in your prikey.pem file. T...
by jim.bus
2020-12-17 09:53
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Gmail Pop3
Replies: 11
Views: 809

Re: Gmail Pop3

This is how mail server works. SPF checks on last sending server/client, in local=>local case it will be you client ip. I think you can add a script that's add a header on local=>local. hMailserver can not know that google checks SPF when you use POP3, I don't know any client do that on POP3. I can...
by jim.bus
2020-12-17 09:35
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Sending and receiving emails error – Please help
Replies: 12
Views: 919

Re: Sending and receiving emails error – Please help

Hi , That's what I'm using not the 'Clam win'. see the configuration details and please tell me if there's anything to be change. Your Diagnostics says you are using both and your configuration setup you displayed in your prior post says you are using both ClamAV and ClamWin. See your attachments i...
by jim.bus
2020-12-17 07:31
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Gmail Pop3
Replies: 11
Views: 809

Re: Gmail Pop3

Thanks for the help guys. I did some more research & found that Thunderbird sees the identical headers as gmail in this scenario, it just doesn't flag it as spam. In my opinion, thunderbird is wrong/lazy here, because clearly my SPF headers say it was sent from an invalid IP. I don't know the RFC f...
by jim.bus
2020-12-17 07:13
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Sending and receiving emails error – Please help
Replies: 12
Views: 919

Re: Sending and receiving emails error – Please help

Read the Help Documentation for Anitvirus. It doesn't state you will get a conflict but it does state Clamwin runs very slow on a busy server. However, this might be what is causing your Conflict. The Help Documentation seems to favor ClamAV.
by jim.bus
2020-12-17 00:42
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Gmail Pop3
Replies: 11
Views: 809

Re: Gmail Pop3

Another possibility would be to set up your degasolutions.com email accounts to forward emails received by hMailServer's dagasolutions.com email accounts directly to username@GMail.Com. I would believe that would solve your problem as well. You, of course, would also need to stop GMail from download...
by jim.bus
2020-12-16 11:56
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Gmail Pop3
Replies: 11
Views: 809

Re: Gmail Pop3

It's possible my ssl is broken/not working, but it's strange that thunderbird can communicate with my hmailserver over SSL & also that all diagnostic tools say SSL is fine. Seems like an issue specific to gmail=>hmail pop3? 73.63.88.221 is my home internet where I have thunderbird installed. It has...
by jim.bus
2020-12-16 10:57
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Cannot send mail via client
Replies: 124
Views: 18662

Re: Cannot send mail via client

Why do you assume a newly assigned IP Address is not on a Blacklist? A previous user of that same IP Address or possibly the block of IP Addresses it was a part of may have been Blacklisted by the Blacklist databases. Also it may be possible for an illicit user to spoof that IP Address. Maybe you sh...
by jim.bus
2020-12-15 08:52
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Gmail Pop3
Replies: 11
Views: 809

Re: Gmail Pop3

If I'm understanding the scenario correctly. hMailServer is not relaying Thunderbird's information. The information I would believe is coming from the TXT SPF Record for degasolutions.com Domain stored in DNS. This Domain's TXT SPF Record is not specifying hMailServer as the permitted email server f...
by jim.bus
2020-12-15 08:33
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Spam being ignored +/-
Replies: 57
Views: 3567

Re: Spam being ignored +/-

Old machines that were made redundant a long time ago. I believe I still have parts lying around to build 2 or 3 systems. My son is a gamer and I recommission all his old gear if it still runs... I believe I have a motherboard with a AMD Ryzen 5 4-core thingy coming my way soon. We recently cloned ...
by jim.bus
2020-12-14 22:51
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Ini-File Settings
Replies: 7
Views: 594

Re: Ini-File Settings

Getting back on topic. Password/Passwordencryption is solely hMailServer talking to the database(server)... PreferredHashAlgorithm on the other hand is how passwords are stored in the database tables AND ... In hMailServer 5, the default preferred hash is now salted SHA256 So, if you do not have a ...
by jim.bus
2020-12-14 22:05
Forum: General discussions
Topic: sending email to gmail
Replies: 4
Views: 463

Re: sending email to gmail

sorry for my english but i'm italian. The problem is when I send the mail or receive it from another server mail: i didn't receive nothing. As you can see, gmail tells me that my account ausi (the created one by Hmail) doesn't exist. Sorry, im a noob and i don't know how to share photos I was waiti...
by jim.bus
2020-12-14 12:50
Forum: General discussions
Topic: sending email to gmail
Replies: 4
Views: 463

Re: sending email to gmail

Your question is a little vague but assuming you already have your own Domain and have entered it with hMailAdmin along with setting up your Email Account for that Domain under Accounts in hMailAdmin, you would send email to your GMail account the same way you would send any email to your Gmail acco...
by jim.bus
2020-12-14 06:33
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Ini-File Settings
Replies: 7
Views: 594

Re: Ini-File Settings

If they got through your perimeter defences and into your server then then they will die laughing at the poor encryption ;-) Problem solved :mrgreen: You mean IG-11 will self-destruct? K2SO to the rescue. Don't mind me... Got a little high on a new Danish movie winning what equals 4 european oscars...
by jim.bus
2020-12-14 00:57
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Ini-File Settings
Replies: 7
Views: 594

Re: Ini-File Settings

I use hMailServer 5.6.8-B2501. Looking at the latest Help Documentation for hMailServer under Ini-File Settings, it seems if PreferredHashAlgorithm Setting is not specified Passwords in the Database will be stored in Clear Text. The preferred setting is to set this value to 3 (SHA256) which would b...
by jim.bus
2020-12-14 00:30
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Ini-File Settings
Replies: 7
Views: 594

Ini-File Settings

I use hMailServer 5.6.8-B2501. Looking at the latest Help Documentation for hMailServer under Ini-File Settings, it seems if PreferredHashAlgorithm Setting is not specified Passwords in the Database will be stored in Clear Text. The preferred setting is to set this value to 3 (SHA256) which would be...
by jim.bus
2020-12-12 06:36
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Spam being ignored +/-
Replies: 57
Views: 3567

Re: Spam being ignored +/-

I get those too... Usually only affect a single mail. 99.99% of the time it is SpamAssassin taking too long to report back. I changed my W2K3 Server Windows settings "Performance Options" in controlpanel to "Processor scheduling = Background" and "Memory usage = Programs" and that seems to have cha...
by jim.bus
2020-12-09 07:36
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?
Replies: 45
Views: 2161

Re: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?

You should try coming up here on our end of the globe... Irish... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pmZmUzhx9w Scotts... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XQCHoKAq9xA Welsh... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gz6wHf5NAco Cockey... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=La7Tg5e547g Oh... and from my neck of th...
by jim.bus
2020-12-09 01:59
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?
Replies: 45
Views: 2161

Re: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?

I suppose you must spend too much time in the Outback! Mate, here in the outback, we love nothing more than grabbing our sheila and heading off in the ute and the tinnie, going to the billabong to drop a line in. In fact, I may just do that this arvo. I've heard of billabong and sheila but not ute,...
by jim.bus
2020-12-09 01:13
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?
Replies: 45
Views: 2161

Re: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?

mattg wrote:
2020-12-08 23:19
learned a new word today 'boondoggle'

Just love that
Gee Matt, the word 'boondoggle' has been around for ages. I suppose you must spend too much time in the Outback!

But in fairness, I believe it is a word that originated in the US years ago.
by jim.bus
2020-12-08 00:30
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?
Replies: 45
Views: 2161

Re: Authentification as relay: where to enter that?

I will take a stab at answering. 1. Looking at the Help documentation for Incoming Relay, the Name field appears to be just a Name to identify the Incoming Relay and doesn't appear to be used for anything in particular. The important information is the IP Address of the Incoming Relay which appears ...
by jim.bus
2020-12-03 21:48
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Cannot send mail via client
Replies: 124
Views: 18662

Re: Cannot send mail via client

dude this is wrong , how many times I am to repeat my self dkim._domainkey.YOURDOMAIN.COM. - bad dkim._domainkey - good The reason I wrote 'If you follow the steps carefully, you should be able to set up your DKIM TXT Record using this tutorial' is because you made the same mistake I made when I fi...
by jim.bus
2020-12-03 20:01
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Cannot send mail via client
Replies: 124
Views: 18662

Re: Cannot send mail via client

This is a tutorial provided by one of the regular contributors on this Forum. It is the guide for what I used for my DKIM setup except I used a 2048 bit Key and had to determine how to enter that key on GoDaddy Zone Editor. If you follow the steps carefully, you should be able to set up your DKIM T...
by jim.bus
2020-12-03 09:50
Forum: General discussions
Topic: Cannot send mail via client
Replies: 124
Views: 18662

Re: Cannot send mail via client

now YOU know how do to it ohh i thought i actually knew .. but much obliged then.. but you are right i never knew how you chose to put it into godaddys webinterface, that was why i asked you for a printscreen ..... I have done great service to this boards despite some smartasses, basiclly once I bo...